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IRRIGATION IN KARNATAKA

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA:

The Karnataka State is the eighth largest State in the country and is located in the Deccan plateau.   The geographical area of Karnataka is 1,90,498 sq.km accounting for 5.81% of the total area of the Country.   

PHYSIOGRAPHY:

         The general elevation in the state varies between 450 to 900 mts. above mean sea level.  The important peaks in the state are Mullayyanagiri  (1913 mts.) in the Baba Budan Hill ranges and Kudremukh (1981mts.).  The important hill ranges are the Westren Ghats, Baba Budan Ranges and Chitradurga Hills.                                                        

CLIMATE:            

          The climate of Karnataka State varies from very humid rainy monsoonal climate in the West Coast, the ghats and malnad areas to semiarid warm dry climate on the east.  There is a large variation in the rainfall with higher amounts in the Western Ghats and reducing towards the eastern plains.  Along the coastal Dakshina Kannada District, the normal rainfall is about 4000 mm and in the drought prone districts of Bijapur, Raichur, Bellary etc., the rainfall is of the order of 500mm to 600mm.                                                         

WATER RESOURCES OF KARNATAKA :

          The average annual yield of the rivers of the Karnataka has been roughly estimated as 98406 m.cum. (3475 Tmc). The basin wise breakup of this yield is given in the following table:     

Sl. No.

River System

       Estimated average   yield in

M.cum

TMC

Percentage

1

Krishna

27,451

969.44

27.90

2

Cauvery

12,034

425.00

12.23

3

Godavari

1,415

49.97

1.44

4

West Flowing river

56,600

1998.83

57.51

5

North Pennar

South Pennar

Palar

906

32.00

0.92

6

7

 

TOTAL

 98406

 3475.24

  100

             However, the economically utilisable water potential for Irrigation is about 48,000 Mcum (1695 TMC).

 BASIN-WISE MASTER PLANS :

           The state has prepared master plans for the various river basins according to these plans the total utilisation likely under major, medium and minor irrigation projects using surface water is 1690.30 tmc as detailed below.

Sl.No.

Basin-wise description

Ultimate Utilisation        in TMC

1 (a)  

As per the Krishna Tribunal’s (Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal) allocation presently in force

734.00

(b)

Available to the state, in Krishna Basin, by way of Godavari Diversion to Krishna, as per Godavari Ttibunal’s (GWDT) award

23.00

(c)

Available to the state when the surplus waters of the Krishna river are allocated under scheme “B”  formulated by the Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal . this scheme can come into force on the formation of an authority  to be called Krishna Valley Authority, either by consent of the party-states  or by an act of parliament

183.00

(d)

   

Available to the state when a section known as Peninsular Rivers Development(PRD) scheme materialises.

216.00

 

Total for Krishna Basin

 1156 .00

2

Cauvery

408.62

3

Godavari

22.37

4

Other basins

103.31

 

Total for the state

 1690.30

 

IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT IN KARNATAKA :                        

 Agriculture being the main occupation of the state, Irrigation place utmost significant part in obtaining increased yields from the land.  The development of Irrigation in the state was slow and unsystematic during the pre independence era. However, there were some notable Irrigation works undertaken and completed during the pre-independence, such as Krishnaraja Sagar (which was the only major project completed prior to independence), Vijayanagar canals, Cauvery anicut Channels, Gokak canal, Vanivilasa Sagar, Markonahalli and Anjanapura.  Though major projects like Tungabhadra, Bhadra and Ghataprabha stage-I were commenced prior to the plan period, their progress was slow and they got impetus only after their inclusion in the first five year plan.

           There were more than 25,000 tanks scattered over erstwhile Mysore state. But in Bombay Karnataka and Hyderabad Karnataka areas, the number of such minor irrigation works are meager.

Virija Anicut Project in Cauvery Sub-Basin(16th Century)

ACHIEVEMENTS UPTO THE END OF MARCH 2000 :

             The total investment up-to the end of March 2000 on Irrigation in the state is     Rs. 14,267 crores comprising Rs.13,399 crores on major & medium irrigation and        Rs. 868 crores on minor irrigation (using surface waters). This does not include the investment on irrigation prior to the plan period i.e., 1951.

             Up-to the end of March 2000 a total irrigation potential of 36,22,921 ha. (Including ground water is created). This comprises of the following. 

 

Area irrigated

Details

a) 4,53,054 ha.

Under 8 major and 32 medium completed projects.

b) 12,88,717 ha.

Under 19 major and 21 medium on-going projects, bringing total potential under major and medium projects to 17,41,171 ha.

c) 9,39,566 ha.

Under completed minor projects using surface waters.

d) 33,021 ha.

Under 13,743 small tanks having less than 4 ha. ayacut ( now with zilla parishads)

e) 9,08,563 ha

Under irrigation from ground water sources.

 

FINANCIAL AND PHYSICAL PROGRAMME FOR 2000-2001:

          During 2000-2001 an outlay of Rs. 2,754.58 crores has been allocated for major & medium irrigation projects. It is programmed to create an additional outlet potential of 76,722 ha.  this includes an outlay of Rs. 1902.93 crores to be spent on UKP through Krishna Bhagya Jala Nigam Limited and Rs 665 crores through Karnataka Neeravari Nigama Limited  for Karnataka Neeravari Nigama Limited projects.

2000-2001 PROGRAMME

Sl.no.

Sector

Allocation (Rs. in crores)

Physical programme (in ha)

 

CAPITAL OUTLAY

 

 

I

Major & Medium

a)      Plan projects

b)      Projects pending approval

 

2754.58

300.00

 

1,77,969

35,223

 

Total

3054.58

2,13,192

II

Survey & Investigation etc.

7.80

 

 

Total (I & II)

3062.38

2,13,192

 

NATIONAL HYDROLOGY PROJECT:

           The National Hydrology Project is taken up with the world bank assistance, since 1996-1997, which envisages setting up of reliable and well designed net work in the state, for collection of Hydrological and Meterological data for surface water as well as ground water both for quality and quantity aspects. The implementation period of this project is six years commencing from 1996-97. 

KARNATAKA NEERAVARI NIGAM LIMITED:

           The state has constituted Karnataka Neeravari Nigama Limited under the company act 1956 with a view to expedite projects under Krishna basin by 2004-2005 by mobilising additional resources required for the projects.

KRISHNA BHAGYA JALA NIGAM LIMITED:

           The state has constituted Krishna Bhagya Jala Nigam Limited under the company act 1956 with a view to expedite the works of Upper Kishna Project and to complete it early by mobilising additional resources required for the project.

ACCELERATED IRRIGATION BENEFIT PROGRAMME (AIBP):

           Government of India has launched the AIBP during the year 1996-97 for the purpose of early completion of some of the on-going projects, which have been lingering due to shortage of funds for the last several years. This programme was on 50:50 sharing basis and the assistance was in the form of loan. And now as per the new norms the sharing is in the ratio of 1/3: 2/3 between the state and center.

           The five on-going projects taken up under this scheme are UKP stage-I, Malaprabha, Hirehalla, Ghataprabha-III and Karanja.

NABARD ASSISTED PROJECTS:

           National Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development (NABARD) has sanctioned loan for completing 6 medium irrigation projects, viz., Votehole, Lower Mullamuri, Amarja, Chulkinala, Maskinala and Manchanabele under Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF-I).  under RIDF-II NABARD has sanctioned loan assistance for one Major Irrigation project viz., Bennithora.

WATER AND LAND MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE (WALMI):

           With the objective of introducing improved techniques in the fields of water and land management and also with a view to impart training to the inservice officers of Irrigation and Agriculture departments and also to train the farmers in this field, WALMI was created in 1985. The institute is functioning at Dharwad since 1986.

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